Hegelian dialectic, usually presented in a threefold manner, was stated by Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus
as comprising three dialectical stages of development: a thesis
, giving rise to its reaction, an antithesis
, which contradicts or negates the thesis, and the tension between the two being resolved by means of a synthesis
The formula Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis
does not explain why the Thesis requires an Antithesis. However, the formula Abstract-Negative-Concrete
suggests a flaw in any initial thesis—it is too abstract and lacks the negative of trial, error and experience. For Hegel, the Concrete, the Synthesis, the Absolute, must always pass through the phase of the Negative, that is, Mediation.